Research Question 2: What key technologies are missing from our list?

What's Missing?

Instructions: Please use these prompts to help you consider what might need to be added to the current list of Horizon Topics. Add your thoughts as bullet points below, using a new bullet point for each new technology or topic. Please add your comments to previous entries if you agree or disagree.
a. What would you list among the established technologies that some educational institutions are using today that arguably ALL institutions should using broadly to support or enhance teaching, learning, or creative inquiry?
b. What technologies that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should educational institutions be actively looking for ways to apply?
c. What are the key emerging technologies you see developing to the point that learning-focused institutions should begin to take notice during the next 4 to 5 years?

Each new topic entry must include a title, a description similar to the ones that are written now, and, if needed, a rationale as to why it is different from any of the existing topics. The Horizon Project research team will investigate each nomination entered here to see if it meets the criteria set for new topics (eg., that the topic represents a "real" technology, as opposed to a concept, a new idea, or a proposal; that it is sufficiently developed that research, projects, and information about it exist; and that it has a demonstrable link, or strong potential link, to education).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking them with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples.

Added as New Developments in Technology

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
I just came across something of interest in the EdSurge Higher Ed edition that reported on a new student advising tool from Salesforce, which is the leading developer of CRM software. There are some related products already available for tracking students and monitoring their academic performance for student success. My institution's tutoring center uses TutorTrac, which has some CRM-like features. These tools make it more seamless for students to make appointments, track their progress, report their efforts to get help to faculty, etc. There have been discussions on library lists about CRM for librarians, who would use it to build relationships with students and faculty by creating profiles of users, keeping track of interactions, pushing support to them (via opt-in), etc Springshare, which already has many librayr customers, is developing a library-specific CRM product. I did not see CRM on the list of current or retired topics, and I would consider it an enabling technology. I think it is worth considering as more of our instutions are already acquiring products like Salesforce for financial aid, registration, advising, etc. How can the library utilize these tools to build relationships and personallize services. Here is the link to the Salesforce advising software: - bells bells Oct 7, 2016 - andreas.kirstein andreas.kirstein Oct 19, 2016 Absolutely!- vacekrae vacekrae Nov 13, 2016 - MarwinBritto MarwinBritto Oct 19, 2016 I have been searching for something like this too. - g.payne g.payne Oct 20, 2016 - mylee.joseph mylee.joseph Nov 8, 2016 - Laurents.Sesink Laurents.Sesink Nov 12, 2016 - erik.stattin erik.stattin Nov 13, 2016 - liusq liusq Nov 13, 2016All services are about realtionship! Greater engagement with project management functionality as well (example: Basecamp) - tchaffin tchaffin Nov 13, 2016 In the Lewis & Ruth Sherman Centre at McMaster University, we use a CRM (Highrise) to track our "long-arc" relationships with faculty and graduate students. These areas of new work in libraries resist "metricization," that is, it's hard to describe their impact using metrics that we derive from other library functions. Consultation of the type done in a digital scholarship space is very difficult to capture since it takes so many forms and can evolve over years as a project idea matures into a grant and so forth. The CRM helps us map and manage this, as well as points toward ways to develop metrics for the work. - askeyd askeyd Nov 11, 2016

Library Services Platforms (LSP)
Disassembling integrated library management systems into interoperable "Apps" to allow best of breed solutions to be integrated to best meet the needs of particular libraries. The FOLIO project ( is one example. This should enable innovation in shorter time cycles. [[user:g.payne|1477020198] Agreed - Library Services Platforms (LSP) are a current and near-future development that are upending operations in how libraries function. Currently changes are largely behind the scenes in technical services departments among earlier adopters but as the platforms expand and develop they will have more of an impact. I can't see a report on library technology over the next five years being complete without a serious look at the ILS / URM / LSP progression - while many of the items we are looking at here are in the "maybe / maybe not" category as far as impact goes, this is a rapidly moving technology with definite impact. - kristi-thompson kristi-thompson Nov 13, 2016 - rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Nov 13, 2016- vacekrae vacekrae Nov 13, 2016

heightened interests in analytics in both research and learning environments. Learning analytics a key component in Unizin consortium. Research analytics interests fueling (being fueled) by new services/functionality from vendors like Pure/SciVal and Academic Analytics. Also controversy around the use of productivity data in evaluating individual researchers and programs. See From Bricks to Clicks Report from Higher Education Commission. - wlougee wlougee Oct 31, 2016 I think this can have a nice tie-in with bibliometrics. - shorisyl shorisyl Nov 1, 2016 An add-on to this is the skill sets of library staff required to integrate Analytics and associated systems into their work and reporting. - SueH SueH Nov 4, 2016 I think an additional element here are altmetrics - eg. PlumX, -there are numerous studies to link downloads, social media attention etc. with citations eg. here - altmetrics have the advantage of being more instantaneous than citation metrics. It's critical for Librarians to understand and how to evaluate these tools and they are being integrated with repository platforms, workload models and other reporting systems. - Jill.benn Jill.benn Nov 8, 2016 - vacekrae vacekrae Nov 13, 2016Just asking what it means if Learning Analytics is on the list of "retired topics" - does that mean it will no longer be considered for the report? Giving how learning analytics is growing in prominence, it would seem that we would want to be exploring how the library would make use of analytics or contribute to it.- bells bells Nov 9, 2016 In evaluation protocols the impact of research on society needs to be measured. Altmetrics can play a role and libraries could be more involved in developing a roadmap how to include these new evaluation figures in protocols and how to gather this information. - Laurents.Sesink Laurents.Sesink Nov 13, 2016

Two-Factor Authentication
We are just beginning to see the emergence of broad 2FA solutions on campuses (largely driven by Duo). Nearly every notable social media or Web platform offers a form of 2FA. It seems like it's poised to enter libraries in the near future. On our campus, I am lobbying hard for it as a way for us to address, firmly, the issue of compromised university credentials to download library-licensed content. How one implements 2FA is, however, far from a simple or solved issue. - askeyd askeyd Nov 2, 2016 We are also seeing some publishers signal that they might implement 2FA on their own platforms. While a security aspect that is understandable, another challenge in accessing content might drive users even more to rogue sites like SciHub? - ljanicke ljanicke Nov 3, 2016 We are now using it for a limited number of applications, such as an employee getting access to their personnel data. Might it be something we'd want to implement for access to library resources? That might certainly help to prevent theft of data that occurs when university IDs are compromised. - bells bells Nov 9, 2016 Good point, and at a number of institutions that have implemented Duo, EZproxy was one of the first applications to be placed behind a 2FA wall for precisely this reason, one would assume. We hope to do this at my institution within two years to throttle illegal downloading. - askeyd askeyd Nov 11, 2016

Browser as OS
After many years of hype around the browser as operating system, Google's suite of Chrome devices (Chromebox, Chromebook, Chromebit) have made this a reality. Moreover, sales of Chrome* units has now surpassed Apple's laptop figures, and their share of the K-12 market is growing rapidly, which means that users accustomed to these devices will be entering university in a few years. They require a shift in computing mentality and comfort level with regard to being cloud connected that we have yet to fully appreciate or process in libraries, but we need to be prepared. - askeyd askeyd Nov 2, 2016

Digital Collaboration Tools
The digitization of library collections is enabling increasing amounts of digital collaboration. This may mean multiple researchers working on the same digital object, or a single researcher leveraging disparate collections. There is some discussion of the evolution of digital collaboration here: A good example of a library-lead effort that is enabling digital collaboration is IIIF: Using IIIF, manuscripts that have for many years been disbound can be digitally reassembled, and researchers can work collaboratively on the complete work. - mcalter mcalter Nov 6, 2016 IIIF is a good example. Besides the technology there is a supporting organisation which drives this technology forward and which takes care of the adaption of the technology through communication events. - Laurents.Sesink Laurents.Sesink Nov 13, 2016 - tchaffin tchaffin Nov 13, 2016

Renewable Energy
This was inspired by the next generation batteries topic, but is slightly different. As universities seek to lower their carbon footprints, there is more interest in renewable energy and energy efficiency. In the last few years some of these technologies (like solar panels) have become much more affordable and efficient. Libraries doing renovations in the next few years should be looking to incorporate these, and all libraries can help to educate students about the amount of energy that goes into the library's physical plant. For instance, we have a building at my university that shows a graph with how much energy is coming from which source, and this could be a great thing to put in a library where many students congregate. - mheller1 mheller1 Nov 11, 2016 - rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Nov 13, 2016- bells bells Nov 14, 2016

Combined with Existing Tech Developments in RQ1

Machine Learning
This may be a stretch in the 5 year horizon, but a vast amount of work is being done in this field. At CMU, we've been talking with colleagues in our Machine Learning Department ( about implications for sophisticated information retrieval and mining technologies. I could imagine a world in which searches are personalized and enhanced, targeting highly relevant material to the individual searcher. - cmkeithw cmkeithw Nov 11, 2016 Agree that machine and deep learning tech will have big impact on personalized and pro-active tailoring of information environments, and applications are entering the market quite fast - erik.stattin erik.stattin Nov 13, 2016 [Editor's Note: This discussion fits in nicely with existing RQ1 topic "Affective Computing" and will be added there.]

Combined with Existing Trends in RQ3

Research Information Management
Role of libraries in developing the "research ecosystem," developing interconnected environment of publications, data, researcher profiles, etc. Use of ORCID and other identifiers to facilitate the development. Important to compliance interests, but also fueling new research. - wlougee wlougee Oct 31, 2016 Including Altmetrics - Laurents.Sesink Laurents.Sesink Nov 13, 2016 I think this is critically important, as libraries are all too often a 'silent partner' in this ecosystem. - shorisyl shorisyl Nov 1, 2016 This is a very important topic with a rapidly developing commercial sector, e.g. PURE. Another phrase "Researcher Reputation Management" ... but in addition to the individual application, this is also about reputation of departments, colleges, and whole universities in the competitive research landscape. - ljanicke ljanicke Nov 3, 2016 Agreed - librarians and library systems (eg. repositories) can play a key role in the development of researcher/school/faculty/university "profiles"- an understanding of international university ranking methodologies is essential. - Jill.benn Jill.benn Nov 8, 2016 - rudolf.mumenthaler rudolf.mumenthaler Nov 13, 2016 - erik.stattin erik.stattin Nov 13, 2016 - vacekrae vacekrae Nov 13, 2016Not only do libraries have the potential to play substantive roles in developing RIMs and the research ecosystem, but also this method of content discovery that keyson identification of scholars first is likely to impact library discovery system design and focus. - sandore sandore Nov 13, 2016
[Editor's Note: Great points! This fits in nicely with the existing discussion for the RQ3 Trend "Increasing Focus on Research Data Management" so this discussion will be added there accordingly.]

Open Pedagogy
While Q#3 offers OER as a key trend, based on my recent experience at the Open Ed 16 conference we might want to include Open Pedagogy, which may be the next trend beyond OER. Open Pedagogy is a movement in which faculty are not only offering open content, but they are actively engaging students in the creation of that content. David Wiley refers to the idea of shifting from "disposable assignments" to "renewable assignments". The former are assignments faculty hate to assign and grade and that students hate to complete - and discard as soon as it is graded. Open pedagogy would result in assignments that are more creatively engaging and live on beyond a single class so that they are "open" to the next class of students who will then build on them. Academic librarians could work with faculty, just as they do with OER, to help in the development of renewable assignments and the provision of access to resources that students could use to create and complete them. I believe it is different enough from OER because it is not simply the provision of learning content to students, but it goes beyond it to actively engage students in the creation of the content. At Open Ed '16 we heard some good example of how this is being realized by forward thinking faculty and David Wiley gives some information and examples in this blog post: - bells bells Nov 9, 2016 [Editor's Note: More excellent points! I think this discussion could enhance and expand the existing RQ 3 Trend of the Proliferation of OER so this will be added there.]

Other Key Insights

ALA's Center for the Future of Libraries has a great list of future trends which may have relevance to this report (although some of these trends may have larger implications for public rather than academic libraries). See: For example, Connected Learning and Gamification are interesting trends listed there. - Sandy.hirsh just now